Knowing that poetry uses compact language, expressing complex feelings, it is important to understand that a poem has multiple meanings — Akpoviri Don Veta Akpoveta
Today, we continue our lecture on ‘ANALYZING A POEM’ (READ PART 1 HERE):
NAMES OF CHARACTERS: Does the name of a character suggest extra meaning, such as Eben Flood (an alcoholic) in Edwin Arlington Robinson’s “Mr. Flood’s Party” and T. S. Eliot’s prissy protagonist in “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”?
BASIC DETAILS OF THE POEM: Is the poet deliberately concealing information from the readers, as with the source of depression in Robert Lowell’s “Skunk Hour”?
Why does the poet leave out significant facts? Are readers supposed to fill in the blanks, for example, the relationship between mother and daughter in Cathy Song’s “The White Porch” or the perplexity of a modern tourist in Allen Tate’s “Ode to the Union Dead”?
THE CULTURE: Does the poem stress cultural details, such as the behavior, dress, or speech habits of a particular group or a historical period or event — for instance, the death of an airline stewardess in James Dickey’s “Falling”?
Are any sections written in dialect, slang, or foreign words, as with the Deep South patois of Sterling Brown’s “Ma Rainey”?
FANTASY VS REALITY: Is the poem an obvious fantasy, as is the case with the intense confrontation in Sylvia Plath’s “Daddy” and the setting of Rita Dove’s “Geometry”?
MOOD AND TONE OF THE POEM: What is the mood of the poem? Is it cheerful or jolly like limericks? Is it mysterious, provocative, zany, ominous, festive, fearful, or brooding, as with Randall Jarrell’s “Sad Heart at the Supermarket”?
- Does the mood change within the body of the work, as with Joy Harjo’s “The Woman Hanging from the Thirteenth Floor Window”? Why does the mood shift? Where does the shift begin?
- What is the poet’s tone? Is it satiric, serious, mock serious, playful, somber, brash, or teasingly humorous, as with Robert Frost’s “Departmental: The End of My Ant Jerry”?
- Does the poet admire, agree with, ridicule, or condemn the speaker, as in the touch of mock heroic in Richard Wilbur’s “The Death of a Toad”?
- Is there an obvious reason for the poet’s attitude, as suggested by the suffering in James Dickey’s “Angina”?
- Does the poet withhold judgment, as is the case with the epitaphs of Edgar Lee Masters’ Spoon River Anthology?
THEMES OF THE POEM: Locating and identifying theme is crucial to understanding dominant ideas; theme is the poem’s essence.
- Is the subject youth, loss, renewal, patriotism, nature, love? Are there several themes? How do these themes relate to each other?
- Is the poet merely teasing or entertaining or trying to teach a lesson, as do Robinson Jeffers’ “Hurt Hawks” and Marianne Moore’s “The Mind Is an Enchanted Thing”?
- Does the poet emphasize the theme by means of onomatopoeia, personification, or controlling images?
RHYTHM OF THE POEM: Is there a dominant rhythm? Does it dance, frolic, meander, slither, or march? Is it conversational, like a scene from a drama? Is it a droning monologue, as found in a journal, diary, or confessional?
- Does the rhythm relate to the prevalent theme of the poem? Or does it seem at odds with the theme?
- Does the rhythm increase or decrease in speed, as does Ezra Pound’s Hugh Selwyn Mauberley: Life and Contacts? Why?
USE OF THE SENSES IN THE POEM: Does the poem stress sense impressions — for example, taste, touch, smell, sound, or sight? Are these impressions pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral?
Does the poet concentrate on a single sense or a burst of sensation, as in Wallace Stevens’s “Peter Quince at the Clavier” or Elizabeth Bishop’s “The Fish”?
IMAGERY IN THE POEM: Are there concrete images or pictures that the poet wants readers to see?
- Are the pictures created by means of comparisons — for instance, metaphor or simile?
- Do inanimate objects take on human traits (personification)?
- Does the speaker talk to inanimate objects or to such abstract ideas as freedom?
LANGUAGE OF THE POEM: Does the poet stress certain sounds, such as pleasant sounds (euphony) or harsh letter combinations (cacophony), as demonstrated by Wendy Rose’s title “Academic Squaw”
- Are certain sounds repeated (alliteration, sibilance), as in the insistent a sounds in Amiri Baraka’s “A Poem for Willie Best”?
- Are words linked by approximate rhyme, like “seem/freeze,” or by real rhyme, such as “least/feast”?
- s there a rhyme scheme or sound pattern at the ends of lines, as with the interlocking rhymes of Robert Frost’s “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”?
- Does rhyming occur within a line (internal rhyme), as in “black flak” in Randall Jarrell’s “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner”?
- Is there onomatopoeia, or words that make a sound that imitates their meaning, such as swoosh, ping pong, ricochet, clangor, plash, wheeze, clack, boom, tingle, slip, fumble, or clip-clop, as with the verb “soar” in Edna St. Vincent Millay’s “On Thought in Harness”?
SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS: Has the editor included any preface, explanatory notes, or concluding comments and questions; for example, T. S. Eliot’s dedication of The Waste Land or Wendy Rose’s use of epigraphs?
- Are there notes and comments in a biography, poet’s letters and essays, critical analyses, Web site, or anthology, such as biographical footnotes to Anne Sexton’s “Sylvia’s Death” and the many commentaries on Hart Crane’s The Bridge?
- Is there an electronic version, such as the poet reading original verse on the Internet? Are there notes on the record jacket, cassette box, or CD booklet, as found on recordings of Adrienne Rich’s feminist verse?
After answering the questions presented in this introduction, readers should paraphrase or restate the poem in everyday words, as though talking to someone on the telephone. A summary of the poem should emphasize a pattern of details, sounds, or rhythm.
For example, do various elements of the poem lead readers to believe that the poet is describing an intense experience?
- Is the poet defining something, such as parenthood, risking a life, curiosity, marriage, religious faith, or aging, as in Denise Levertov’s “A Woman Alone”?
- Is the poet telling a story event by event? Does the poet want to sway the reader’s opinion, as Louise Bogan does in “Evening in the Sanitarium”?
- Before reaching a conclusion about the meaning of a poem, readers should summarize their personal responses.
- Are they emotionally moved or touched by the poem?
- Are they entertained or repulsed, terrified or stirred to agree?
- Do words and phrases stick in their memory?
- How has the poet made an impression? And most important, why?
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